VLSI is the abbreviation of Very Large Scale Integration. It refers to an integrated circuit that integrates tens of thousands to millions of transistors and has a line width of less than 1 micrometer on a silicon wafer of a few millimeters. Since the transistors and wiring are completed at once, the man-hours and costs of manufacturing several to millions of transistors are equal. In mass production, hardware costs are almost negligible and depend on design costs.
Very large scale integrated circuits were successfully developed in the late 1970s and are mainly used for manufacturing memory and microprocessors. The 64k-bit random access memory is the first generation of very large-scale integrated circuits, which contains about 150,000 components and has a line width of 3 microns. The integration of VLSI has reached 6 million transistors and the line width has reached 0.3 microns. Electronic equipment manufactured with very large scale integrated circuits has small size, light weight, low power consumption and high reliability. Using VLSI technology, an electronic subsystem and even the entire electronic system can be "integrated" on a chip to complete various functions such as information collection, processing, and storage. For example, the entire 386 microprocessor circuit can be integrated on one chip, with an integration of 2.5 million transistors. The successful development of VLSI is a leap in microelectronics technology, which has greatly promoted the advancement of electronic technology, thereby driving the development of military technology and civilian technology. Very large scale integrated circuits have become an important indicator of a country's scientific and technological and industrial development level. It is also the most competitive field in the world's major industrial countries, especially the United States and Japan. VLSI will continue to develop.
Integrated circuits can be divided into small-scale integrated circuits, medium-scale integrated circuits, large-scale integrated circuits, ultra-large-scale integrated circuits, extra-large-scale integrated circuits, and large-scale integrated circuits according to the level of integration.
(Small Scale Integration: SSI) appeared in 1960, containing 10-100 components or 1-10 logic gates on a silicon chip. Such as logic gates and flip-flops. If a small-scale digital integrated circuit (SSI) is used to design a combinational logic circuit, the gate circuit is used as the basic unit of the circuit, so the simplification of the logic function should minimize the number of gate circuits used, and the number of gate inputs least.
(Medium Scale Integration: MSI)
Appeared in 1966, containing 100-1000 components or 10-100 logic gates on a silicon chip. Such as integrated timers, registers, decoders, etc.
If you choose a medium-scale integrated circuit (MSI) to design a combinational logic circuit, the number of integrated circuits used is the smallest, the variety is the least, and the connections between the integrated circuits are also the least. This often requires transforming the logic function expression into the expression required by the selection circuit, and sometimes the standard paradigm can be used directly.
Although the functions of MSI medium-scale combinational logic devices are stronger than those of small-scale integrated circuits SSI, they are not as functionally specific as large-scale integrated circuits LSIs. Although there are many varieties of these device products, they cannot fully meet the requirements of users. , Which requires cascading multiple chips to expand its functions, and can also use some standard medium-scale inheritance components to achieve the design of other combinational logic circuits. When using medium-scale integrated components to design combinational logic circuits, the method is to select the appropriate MSI, and then convert the logical expression after the actual problem into the MSI expression form of the response. Compared with the combinational logic circuit designed with the gate circuit, the combinational logic circuit designed with MSI is not only small in size and light in weight, but also improves the reliability of the work.
The cascade of medium-scale data selection can expand the number of channels of its selection data, and its function expansion can be used not only for combinational logic circuits, but also for sequential logic circuits. The following applications are mainly used in combinational logic circuits: (1) Cascade expansion to increase the number of selected channels and number of bits, which can realize data transmission from multiple bits to multiple bits; (2) As a logic function generator, used to Realize the design of any combination of logic circuits.
Large Scale Integrated circuits: LSI)
Appeared in 1970, containing 1000-100000 elements or 100-10000 logic gates on a silicon chip. Such as: semiconductor memory, some computer peripherals. 628512, 628128 (128K) maximum capacity 1G.
(Very Large Scale Integrated circuits: VLSI)
An integrated circuit that has more than 100,000 components integrated on a chip or has more than 10,000 gates is called a very large scale integrated circuit. Very large scale integrated circuits were successfully developed in the late 1970s and are mainly used for manufacturing memories and microprocessors. The 64k-bit random access memory is the first generation of very large-scale integrated circuits, which contains about 150,000 components and has a line width of 3 microns.
The integration of VLSI has reached 6 million transistors and the line width has reached 0.3 microns. Electronic equipment manufactured with very large scale integrated circuits has small size, light weight, low power consumption and high reliability. Using VLSI technology, an electronic subsystem and even the entire electronic system can be "integrated" on a chip to complete various functions such as information collection, processing, and storage. For example, the entire 386 microprocessor circuit can be integrated on one chip, with an integration of 2.5 million transistors. The successful development of VLSI is a leap in microelectronics technology, which has greatly promoted the advancement of electronic technology, thereby driving the development of military technology and civilian technology. VLSI has become an important indicator of a country’s scientific and technological and industrial development level, and it is also the most competitive field in the world’s major industrial countries, especially the United States and Japan.
(Ultra Large-Scale Integration: ULSI)
In 1993, with the successful development of 16M FLASH and 256M DRAM that integrated 10 million transistors, it entered the era of ULSI (Ultra Large-Scale Integration). The number of integrated components of VLSI is between 107 and 109.
The rapid growth of ULSI circuit integration mainly depends on the following two factors: First, the perfect crystal growth technology has reached an extremely high level; Second, the continuous improvement of manufacturing equipment, the improvement of processing accuracy, automation, and reliability have made the device size into the Deep submicron field. The silicon single crystal preparation technology can make the radial parameters of the crystal uniform, reduce the number of micro-defects in the body, and the average size of 0.1-0.3um defects can be less than 0.05 per square centimeter. I also have a relatively complete understanding of the theoretical model of defects induced in the circuit processing process, thus developing a complete set of processing techniques for perfect crystals. The continuous increase in the diameter of silicon wafers used in production circuits has led to a significant increase in production efficiency. The diameter of the silicon wafer has reached 12 inches. The reduction in micro-defects increases the chip yield. 0.02 defects per square centimeter of silicon wafers can achieve a 256MB DRAM yield of 80 to 90%.
(Giga Scale Integration: GSI)
In 1994, due to the successful development of 1G DRAM that integrated 100 million components, it entered the era of huge scale integrated circuit GSI (Giga Scale Integration). The number of integrated components of huge scale integrated circuits is above 109.
With the advancement of VLSI technology, it has become possible to build very large parallel distributed systems with thousands or even tens of thousands of processors.
In engineering applications, reliability technology runs through the various stages and aspects of the VLSI demand analysis, product design, manufacturing process, test and inspection, and the entire application process. The development of military electronics and aerospace technology has placed higher and higher reliability requirements on VLSI , Promote the continuous development of VLSI reliability technology. Due to the development of technology and the promotion of demand, VLSI reliability assurance has gradually shifted from reliability testing and screening to control the reliability of the final product in the past, and has gradually turned to strengthening process control, strengthening the coordination of reliability design and functional design, in consideration At the same time of process capability and function design, it proposes countermeasures against the main failure mechanism, and comprehensively weighs the reliability indicators and costs of VLSI during the full life cycle and under specific environmental conditions. According to this, circuit design, structural design and layout Layout, material selection, process flow and parameter selection, process control, design verification and process evaluation, product reliability test evaluation and screening introduce appropriate reliability technologies to ensure and improve product reliability. VLSI reliability technology includes five major technical directions, including reliability design and simulation, reliability test and evaluation, process quality control, failure mechanism and model research, and failure analysis technology. With the continuous deepening of reliability physics research, VLSI reliability technology presents a trend of modeling, quantification and integration.
Since VLSI integration has been following the "Moore's Law" and has rapidly increased at a rate of doubling every 18 months, the number of circuit components integrated on a chip has already exceeded 100 million. This development trend is making VLSI play a role in electronic equipment. From device chip to system on chip (SOC); at the same time, the deep submicron VLSI process feature size has reached below 0.18 μm. With the feature size continuously shrinking, integration and chip area, and actual power consumption increasing, The approximation of the physical limit increases the sensitivity of various failure mechanism effects that affect the reliability of VLSI. The factors that need to be considered and weighed in the design and process are greatly increased. The remaining reliability tolerances tend to disappear, thereby ensuring the reliability and improvement of VLSI reliability. Facing huge challenges. Therefore, the reliability research on the main failure mechanism of deep submicron/ultra deep submicron VLSI has been continuously deepened in the world, new failure analysis technology and equipment continue to appear, and world-renowned integrated circuit manufacturers have established their own VLSI Quality and reliability assurance system, and the development and application of wafer-level and package-level reliability evaluation test structures for the main failure mechanisms of VLSI are included in its quality assurance plan, and the application of reliability simulation in reliability design and evaluation is also increasing . While further improving the reliability technologies such as wafer-level reliability (WLR), statistical process control (SPC), and reliability-oriented experimental design method (DOE), the built-in reliability (BIR) was proposed internationally in the 1990s. New concept, comprehensively apply various related reliability technologies to VLSI R&D and production process in a targeted and quantitative manner, and build a VLSI quality and reliability guarantee system from the perspective of technology and management to meet users’ requirements for reducing VLSI failure rate , Increasingly higher requirements to improve its reliability level.
In my country, the development and application of VLSI reliability technology has reached a new level after nearly two five-year plans of research and practice. In terms of VLSI process reliability evaluation and assurance technology, a wafer-level reliability technology WLR for production lines of domestic key integrated circuit research has been established, including process quality evaluation PCM technology, reliability evaluation REM technology and process quality control SPC technology. The process quality control and reliability assurance of the circuit manufacturing stage provide the necessary methods and means, and provide a quantitative basis for assessing the quality and reliability capability of the process line; in terms of VLSI reliability design, simulation and analysis technology, the current VLSI design stage Reliability design technology research on the main failure mechanism has been carried out. The integrated circuit reliability integrated simulator ISRIC has been developed by itself. The electron beam test, light emission fault diagnosis, electronic microprobe analysis and IDDQ testing is the core comprehensive failure location technology, and the effectiveness of these technologies has been implemented and verified to meet the requirements of practical engineering. These technologies are consistent with the reliability evaluation methods and technologies generally adopted abroad in the 1990s, especially in recent years. They have the characteristics of advanced technology and strong practicability. They are used in several typical integrated circuit production lines and multiple circuit products in China. It plays an important role in stabilizing the process and improving the process yield, achieving batch process reliability evaluation and process reliability consistency monitoring, and ensuring the reliability of the integrated circuit process platform and circuit products. The development of my country's VLSI reliability technology has the following characteristics:
(1) Through the analysis of failure modes and failure mechanisms, reveal the underlying root causes that lead to failures and affect reliability, and carry out targeted reliability design—failure analysis—information feedback—design improvement, and form a cycle to promote this technical approach The VLSI inherent reliability level is improved.
(2) Keeping up with the development trend of international advanced VLSI reliability technology, such as WLR technology, reliability simulation technology, advanced failure analysis technology, etc., and conducted in-depth research and engineering applications.
(3) Due to the gap between the technology platform of VLSI reliability technology application in China and abroad, the focus of our research and solution is the reliability problem of micron/submicron devices, while the object of international reliability research is ultra-deep submicron Device reliability issues. ?
(4) my country's VLSI reliability technology is oriented to engineering applications and has strong practicality. The process reliability evaluation and assurance technology with PCM, REM and SPC as the core has been adopted and achieved results.
The next ten years will be a decade of great development of the domestic VLSI industry and technology. A number of microelectronics industry bases will be built to form a design, manufacturing, testing, and packaging enterprise group with VLSI processing technology below 0.25 μm as the core, and drive the country The booming of microelectronics technology. The development of VLSI reliability technology must seize the opportunity, rely on this development trend, highlight the key points, and promote development with applications.
(1) During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, further strengthen investment in VLSI reliability application research, develop VLSI reliability design and verification technology, and wafer level (WLR) representative products such as ASIC, especially SOC, CPU and DSP Reliability evaluation and assurance technology, reliability parameter database technology of Foundry standard process line, research on failure physics of ultra-deep submicron devices, research on failure mechanism of new materials and new device structures, research on new methods of nondestructive testing and evaluation screening, and new Research on the failure analysis technology to effectively control various failure modes and achieve reliability growth.
(2) Relying on the technology and equipment conditions of the State Key Laboratory of Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Components in the reliability research of microelectronic devices, through further capacity expansion construction, VLSI reliability evaluation, testing, screening and aging are formed , Failure analysis and other serialized reliability technology support systems, providing related technical services for the semiconductor industry.
(3) Formulate and implement reliability-related standards. Supplement and improve the relevant reliability content in the existing national standards, national military standards, and enterprise standards, establish and improve various types of reliability standards for the design, evaluation, testing, process control, and simulation of industry standards, specifications, and implementation rules to enable VLSI design There are quantitative assessment standards and basis for reliability implementation in the process, to ensure process yield and product reliability. ?
(4) The comprehensive promotion and application of mature reliability technology is the key to the implementation of the VLSI reliability assurance plan. In particular, the process capability assessment and SPC control technology of the standard process line, the reliability evaluation technology of the standard process, reliability design and simulation evaluation technology, etc. should be promoted and applied in the whole industry.
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