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A personal computer refers to a multi-purpose computer whose size, price, and performance are suitable for personal use. Desktops, laptops to small notebooks and tablets, and ultrabooks are all personal computers.

PC (Program Counter, PC) is used to store the address of the current instruction to be executed. There is a direct path between it and the main memory MAR, and it has the function of adding 1 to form the address of the next instruction.



The instruction counter is used to store the address of the unit where the next instruction is located.

In order to ensure that the program (under the operating system is understood as a process) can continue to execute, the CPU must have some means to determine the address of the next instruction. The program counter plays this role, so it is usually called the instruction counter. Before the program starts executing, its starting address, that is, the address of the memory unit where an instruction of the program is located, must be sent to the PC, so the content of the program counter (PC) is the address of the first instruction fetched from memory. When the instruction is executed, the CPU will automatically modify the content of the PC, that is, each time the instruction is executed, the PC increases by an amount equal to the number of bytes contained in the instruction, so that it keeps the address of the next instruction to be executed. Since most instructions are executed in order, the modification process usually simply adds 1 to the PC. The dimension of the PC is generally the same as the dimension of the memory address register MAR.

When the program is transferred, the final result of the execution of the transfer instruction is to change the value of the PC, and this PC value is the transferred address to realize the transfer. In some machines, the PC is also called the instruction pointer IP (Instruction Pointer).

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