MSI is a medium-scale integration. It is also a kind of electric energy that can pass the load.
Experimental findings show that semiconductor devices can realize the function of vacuum tubes, and the progress of semiconductor manufacturing technology in the mid-20th century, making integrated circuits possible. Relative to the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components, integrating a large number of micro-transistors into a small chip is a huge improvement. The scale production capacity of integrated circuits, reliability, and the modular approach to circuit design ensure that standardized ICs are quickly adopted instead of designing discrete transistors.
IC has two main advantages for discrete transistors: cost and performance. The low cost is due to the fact that the chip prints all the components through photolithography technology as a unit, rather than making only one transistor at a time. The high performance is due to the fast switching of components, which consumes less energy, because the components are small and close to each other. In 2006, the chip area ranged from several square millimeters to 350 mm2; each mm2; could reach one million transistors.
According to the number of microelectronic devices integrated on a chip, integrated circuits can be divided into the following categories:
Small-scale integrated circuits (SSI English full name is Small-Scale Integration, within dozens of logic gates).
Medium-scale integrated circuits (MSI full name is Medium-Scale Integration, hundreds of logic gates).
Large-scale integrated circuits (the full name of LSI English is Large-Scale Integration, tens of thousands of logic gates).
Very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI English name is Very-large-scale integration, more than hundreds of thousands of logic gates).
Very large or very large scale integrated circuits (SLSI/ULSI English full name is Super-Large-Scale Integration/Ultra-Large-Scale Integration, more than one million logic gates).
And according to the different processing signals, it can be divided into analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits.
The first prototype of the integrated circuit was completed by Jack Kilby in 1958, which included a bipolar transistor, three resistors and a capacitor.
The integrated circuit starts from Intel's 8-bit processor 8742, which integrates 128 B RAM, 2048 B EPRROM and I/O interface on one chip. The most advanced integrated circuits are microprocessors or "cores", which can control everything from computers to mobile phones to digital microwave ovens. Memory and ASIC are examples of other integrated circuit families and are very important for the modern information society. Although the cost of designing and developing a complex integrated circuit is very high, the cost of each IC is minimized when it is distributed to products that are usually millions. The performance of the IC is very high, because the small size brings a short path, so that low power logic circuits can be applied at fast switching speeds.
Over the years, ICs have continued to develop to smaller form factors, allowing each chip to package more circuits. This increases the capacity per unit area, which can reduce costs and increase functionality-see Moore's Law, the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years. In short, as the form factor shrinks, almost all indicators have improved-unit cost and switching power consumption have decreased, and speed has increased. However, ICs that integrate nano-level devices are not without problems, mainly leakage current. Therefore, the speed and power consumption increase for the end user is very obvious, and manufacturers face the sharp challenge of using better geometry. This process and the progress expected in the next few years are well described in the Semiconductor International Technology Roadmap (ITRS).
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