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Large-scale integrated circuit: LSI (Large Scale Integration), usually refers to an integrated circuit with logic gates ranging from 100 gates to 9999 gates (or containing element counts from 1000 to 99999), with more than 1,000 electronic components assembled on a chip . An integrated circuit (called an integrated circuit by Hong Kong and Taiwan) is a microelectronic device or component. Using a certain process, the transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors and other components and wiring required in a circuit are interconnected together to make a small piece or several pieces of semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates, and then packaged in a tube Inside the shell, it becomes a microstructure with the required circuit function; all the components in it have been integrated into a structure. It can be represented by the letter "IC" (also with the text symbol "N", etc.).


Circuit classification

Structure by function

According to their different functions and structures, integrated circuits can be divided into three categories: analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits, and digital/analog hybrid integrated circuits. [2] 

Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (referring to signals whose amplitude changes with time. For example, audio signals of semiconductor radios, tape signals of recorders, etc.), their input signals and output signals Proportional relationship. Digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (referring to signals with discrete values in time and amplitude. For example, audio signals and video signals for VCD and DVD playback).

According to the production process

Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and film integrated circuits according to the manufacturing process.

Film integrated circuits are further classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.

According to the level of integration

Integrated circuits can be divided into small-scale integrated circuits, medium-scale integrated circuits, large-scale integrated circuits, very large-scale integrated circuits, extra-large-scale integrated circuits, and large-scale integrated circuits according to the level of integration.

By conductivity type

Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to their conductivity type.They are all digital integrated circuits.

The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complex and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits have TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and other types. The manufacturing process of the unipolar integrated circuit is simple, the power consumption is also low, and it is easy to make a large-scale integrated circuit.

By use

Integrated circuits can be divided into integrated circuits for televisions, integrated circuits for audio, integrated circuits for video players, integrated circuits for video recorders, integrated circuits for computers (microcomputers), integrated circuits for electronic pianos, integrated circuits for communication, and integrated circuits for cameras Circuits, remote control integrated circuits, language integrated circuits, integrated circuits for alarms and various special integrated circuits.

1. Integrated circuits for televisions include line and field scanning integrated circuits, intermediate amplifier integrated circuits, sound integrated circuits, color decoding integrated circuits, AV/TV conversion integrated circuits, switching power supply integrated circuits, remote control integrated circuits, and Liyin decoding integrated circuits , Picture-in-picture processing integrated circuits, microprocessor (CPU) integrated circuits, memory integrated circuits, etc.

2. The integrated circuit for audio includes AM/FM high-IF circuit, stereo decoding circuit, audio preamplifier circuit, audio operational amplifier integrated circuit, audio power amplifier integrated circuit, surround sound processing integrated circuit, level drive integrated circuit, electronic volume Control integrated circuits, delay reverberation integrated circuits, electronic switch integrated circuits, etc.

3. Integrated circuits for DVD players include system control integrated circuits, video encoding integrated circuits, MPEG decoding integrated circuits, audio signal processing integrated circuits, sound effect integrated circuits, RF signal processing integrated circuits, digital signal processing integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, Motor drive integrated circuits, etc.

4. Integrated circuits for video recorders include system control integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, drive integrated circuits, audio processing integrated circuits, and video processing integrated circuits.

By application area

Integrated circuits can be divided into standard general-purpose integrated circuits and application-specific integrated circuits according to application fields.

By shape

Integrated circuits can be divided into round (metal-transistor package type, generally suitable for high power), flat type (good stability, small size) and dual in-line type according to the shape.

Circuit characteristics

VLSI refers to an integrated circuit with an integration degree (the number of components contained in each chip) greater than 10. The integrated circuit is generally made by a planar process on a P-type silicon wafer with a thickness of 0.2 to 0.5 mm and an area of about 0.5 mm. A circuit containing ten (or more) diodes, resistors, capacitors, and connecting wires can be made on this silicon chip (a substrate called an integrated circuit).

Compared with discrete components, integrated circuit components have the following characteristics:

1. The precision of a single component is not high, and it is also greatly affected by temperature, but the performance of components manufactured by the same process on the same silicon chip is consistent, the symmetry is good, and the temperature difference between adjacent components is small, so the same The temperature characteristics of similar components are basically the same;

2. The value range of integrated resistors and capacitors is narrow, and resistors and capacitors with large values occupy a large area of the silicon chip. The integrated resistance is generally in the range of tens of Ω to tens of kΩ, and the capacitance is generally tens of pF. Inductance cannot be integrated yet;

3. The absolute error of the performance parameters of components is relatively large, and the ratio of performance parameters of similar components is relatively accurate;

4. The β value of the longitudinal NPN tube is large, which occupies a small silicon area and is easy to manufacture. The β value of the lateral PNP tube is very small, but its PN junction withstand voltage is high.

Design Features

Due to the manufacturing process and the characteristics of components, analog integrated circuits are very different in circuit design thinking from discrete component circuits.

1. In terms of the components used, use transistors as much as possible, and less resistors and capacitors;

2. In the circuit form, a large number of differential amplifier circuits and various constant current source circuits are used, and the direct coupling mode is adopted for the coupling between stages;

3. Use the parameter compensation principle as much as possible to convert the high-precision requirements of a single component to the requirements of the same parameter error for two devices; try to choose a circuit whose characteristics are only affected by the ratio of resistance or other parameters

China Development

"The implementation and smooth progress of the ultra-large-scale integrated circuit design project has laid a solid foundation for China to move from the world's second largest integrated circuit consumer country to an integrated circuit design power in 2010." "The 863 VLSI design chief said.

There are four sentences in the industry that describe the role of integrated circuits very well. They are: the core of electronic information products and national defense electronic equipment, the most important manifestation of the core competitiveness of the information industry, and the mastery of information technology and industry development initiative. The cornerstone of achieving leapfrog development is the necessary technical guarantee for the independent development of the information industry and modern service industry and the enhancement of their added value.

"Mastering the key technologies of integrated circuits and software and realizing industrialization will play a vital role in my country's realization of informatization to drive industrialization and ensure national information security." The person in charge said.

The "Important Special Project on Integrated Circuits and Software" is one of the twelve major scientific and technological projects during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period in my country. The Ministry of Science and Technology has set up three special projects for ultra-large-scale integrated circuit design, 100-nm integrated circuit manufacturing equipment and integrated circuit supporting materials for integrated circuits in the 863 plan, and the achievements in ultra-large-scale integrated circuit design have been particularly remarkable.


Fully achieve the expected goal

According to the person in charge, since the implementation of the VLSI design project, significant progress has been made in three areas, namely, in talent development, microprocessors, and network communications.

"We have made remarkable achievements in the construction of 7+1 national IC design industrialization bases and 9 national IC talent training bases; in terms of microprocessor CPU and DSP design, "Zhongzhi" and "C-Core ','Loongson' and'Hanxin' have all achieved in-depth development from technological breakthroughs to key promotion. The last one is the development and application of SoC system chips in the fields of network communication, information security, information appliances, etc., "COMIP" , "Huaxia Netcore" and "Starlight Multimedia" and other chips have achieved key breakthroughs in development and application. In addition, the construction of four service systems in MPW, IP core alliance, EDA tools, and international cooperation has also gradually improved. In the implementation effect, not only Reflects the guiding ideology of project establishment, and in addition to the IP nuclear application promotion alliance work needs to be further explored, the special project has fully achieved the strategic goals and expected results of the project." The person in charge said.

As a highly knowledge-intensive industry, talents are the key to the development of my country's integrated circuit design industry. Specialized large-scale training of talents has played an important role in solving the bottleneck problem of my country's integrated circuit talent shortage. A number of core chip products with independent intellectual property rights and a group of integrated circuit design companies with core technological competitiveness have appeared one after another, laying a solid foundation for the final industrialization of integrated circuits.

Reflect the national will, gather first-class talents, give full play to the advantages of late-coming, seize the rare opportunity of international IT industrial structure reorganization, and advance the strategically forward-looking ultra-large scale integrated circuit design technology and industry's independent innovation and leap from a high starting point. This was the original intention when the special project was implemented, and now, the scientific research personnel of the special group have almost completed this task.

Provide help

Provide strong support for the development of the information industry

"During the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, China's electronic information industry has maintained rapid and continuous development, and integrated circuit design is a strategic key core technology. The implementation of this special project has a significant promotion effect on integrated circuit technology and industry. The output value of integrated circuit design industry From 500 million yuan in 1999 to nearly 15 billion yuan in 2005, it plays an increasingly important role in supporting the development of China's information technology and industry." The person in charge said.

In the process of special implementation, a large number of industrial bases were built. The construction of these bases effectively mobilized the central and local resources to promote the integrated circuit design industry; it created the integrated circuit design industry in the market, policies, funds and talents The atmosphere of healthy development in other aspects; formed a gathering of talents, technology and enterprises, providing a strong support for the development of China's information industry.


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