Microprocessor (MicroprocessorUnit) is referred to as MPU (or MP) for short. Composed of large-scale integrated circuit chips, it is a central controller (CentralProcessingUnit), referred to as CPU.
Compared with the traditional central processing unit, the microprocessor has the advantages of small size, light weight and easy modularization. The basic components of a microprocessor are: register file, arithmetic unit, timing control circuit, and data and address bus.
Since the invention of the transistor in 1947, semiconductor technology has gone through several generations of silicon transistors, integrated circuits, very large-scale integrated circuits, and very large-scale integrated circuits in the past 50 years. The speed of development is unprecedented in other industries. Semiconductor technology has had a wide-ranging impact on the entire society, so it is called the "seed of the industry." The central processing unit refers to the component that processes data and controls the processing process inside the computer. With the rapid development of large-scale integrated circuit technology, the chip integration density is getting higher and higher, and the CPU can be integrated on a semiconductor chip. Large-scale integrated circuit devices with central processing unit functions are collectively referred to as "microprocessors." It should be noted that the microprocessor itself is not equal to the microcomputer, but only the central processing unit of the microcomputer.
Microprocessors have become ubiquitous, whether it is video recorders, smart washing machines, mobile phones and other home appliances, or car engine control, as well as CNC machine tools, missile precision guidance, etc., all types of microprocessors must be embedded. The microprocessor is not only the core component of a microcomputer, but also a key component of various digital intelligent devices. High-end computing systems such as ultra-high-speed supercomputers and mainframe computers in the world are also built with a large number of general-purpose high-performance microprocessors.
The 16-bit microprocessor (the 8086 microprocessor in the figure) can be divided into two parts. One part is the execution unit (EU), that is, the part that executes instructions; the other part is the bus interface unit (BIU), which communicates with the 8086 bus and executes The operation of fetching instructions from memory. After the microprocessor is divided into EU and BIU, the operations of fetching and executing instructions can be overlapped. The EU part has a register file, which is composed of 8 16-bit registers, which can be used to store data, index and stack pointer, arithmetic operation logic unit (ALU) to perform arithmetic and logical operations, and mark the register to register the conditions of the results of these operations. These components in the execution unit transmit data through the data bus. The bus interface component also has a register file, where CS, DS, SS, and ES are segmented registers for memory space segmentation. IP is the instruction pointer. The internal communication register is also a register for temporarily storing data. The instruction queue stores the instruction stream fetched in advance. The bus interface component also has an address adder, which adds the segment register value and the offset value to obtain a 20-bit physical address. Data and address are connected with the external 8086 system bus through the bus control logic. The 8086 has a 16-bit data bus. When the processor and off-chip transmit data, a 16-bit binary number is transmitted in one lesson. 8086 has a primary pipeline structure, which can realize the overlap of on-chip operations and off-chip operations.
According to the application fields of microprocessors, microprocessors can be roughly divided into three categories: general-purpose high-performance microprocessors, embedded microprocessors, digital signal processors, and microcontrollers. Generally speaking, general-purpose processors pursue high performance. They are used to run general-purpose software and are equipped with a complete and complex operating system; embedded microprocessors emphasize high performance for handling specific application problems and are mainly used to run special programs for specific fields. Equipped with a lightweight operating system, mainly used in consumer home appliances such as cellular phones and CD players; microcontrollers are relatively low in price and have the largest demand in the microprocessor market, mainly used in automobiles, air conditioners, automatic machinery and other fields Of automatic control equipment.
CPU is the abbreviation of Central Processing Unit (Central Processing Unit). It is the most important part of the computer and consists of arithmetic unit and controller. If you compare a computer to a human, then the CPU is the human brain. The development of CPU is very rapid. It only took 21 years for personal computers to develop from 8088 (XT) to Pentium 4 era.
The CPU has a history of more than 20 years since its initial development. During this period, according to the word length of its processing information, the CPU can be divided into: 4-bit microprocessor, 8-bit microprocessor, 16-bit microprocessor, 32 Bit microprocessors and the latest 64-bit microprocessors, it can be said that the development of personal computers is advancing with the development of CPUs. Microcomputer refers to the large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits as the main components, and the microprocessor MP (Micro Processor) that integrates the main components of the computer-the controller and the arithmetic unit, as the core. The calculation system constructed after more than 30 years Development, the development of microprocessors can be roughly divided into:
The first stage
(1971-1973) The word length is usually 4-bit or 8-bit microprocessors, typically the Intel 4004 and Intel 8008 microprocessors in the United States. Intel 4004 is a 4-bit microprocessor that can perform 4-bit binary parallel operations. It has 45 instructions and a speed of 0.05 MIPs (Million Instruction Per Second, millions of instructions per second). Intel 4004 has limited functions and is mainly used in home appliances such as calculators, electric typewriters, cameras, platform scales, televisions, etc., to make these electrical equipment intelligent and improve their performance. Intel 8008 is the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. The memory uses PMOS technology. At this stage, the computer works slowly, the instruction system of the microprocessor is incomplete, the memory capacity is small, only a few hundred bytes, there is no operating system, only assembly language. Mainly used for industrial instrumentation and process control.
(1974-1977) Typical microprocessors are Intel 8080/8085, Zilog's Z80 and Motorola's M6800. Compared with the first generation of microprocessors, the integration level is increased by 1 to 4 times, the operation speed is increased by 10 to 15 times, the instruction system is relatively complete, and it has a typical computer architecture and functions such as interrupt and direct memory access. .
Because microprocessors can be used to complete many computing tasks that previously required larger equipment to complete, and the price is cheap, semiconductor companies began to compete to produce microprocessor chips. Zilog company produced the enhanced Z80 8080, Motorola produced the 6800, and Intel produced the enhanced 8085 in 1976, but these chips basically did not change the basic characteristics of the 8080 and belong to the second generation of microprocessors. They all use NMOS technology, the integration is about 9000 transistors, the average instruction execution time is 1μS～2μS, they use assembly language, BASIC, Fortran programming, and use a single-user operating system.
The third stage (1978-1984) is the 16-bit microprocessor. In 1978, Intel first introduced the 16-bit microprocessor 8086. At the same time, for the convenience of the original 8-bit computer users, Intel Corporation also proposed a quasi 16-bit microprocessor 8088.
The 8086 microprocessor has a maximum clock speed of 8MHz, a 16-bit data channel, and a memory addressing capacity of 1MB. At the same time, Intel also produced the mathematics co-processor i8087 to work with. These two chips use mutually compatible instruction sets, but the i8087 instruction set adds some instructions specifically for mathematical calculations such as logarithms, exponents, and trigonometric functions. People refer to these instruction sets as the x86 instruction set. Although Intel has successively produced more advanced and faster new CPUs such as the second and third generations, they are still compatible with the original x86 instructions, and Intel continued to use the original x86 sequence in the naming of subsequent CPUs until later Due to trademark registration issues, it gave up the continued use of Arabic numerals.
In 1979, Intel developed the 8088. The 8086 and 8088 both use 16-bit data transmission inside the chip, so they are called 16-bit microprocessors, but the 8086 can transmit or receive 16-bit data per cycle, while the 8088 per cycle Only 8 bits are used. Because most of the original devices and chips are 8-bit, the 8088's external 8-bit data transmission and reception can be compatible with these devices. 8088 adopts 40-pin DIP package, operating frequency is 6.66MHz, 7.16MHz or 8MHz, the microprocessor integrates about 29,000 transistors.
After Intel launched 8086 and 8088 CPUs, various companies have also launched similar products, such as Zilog's Z8000 and Motorola's M68000. Compared with 8-bit microprocessors, 16-bit microprocessors have larger addressing space, stronger computing power, faster processing speed and more complete instruction system. Therefore, 16-bit microprocessors have been able to replace the functions of some minicomputers. Especially in single-task, single-user systems, 16-bit microprocessors such as the 8086 have been widely used.
In 1981, the American IBM company used the 8088 chip in the IBM-PC it developed, thus creating a new era of microcomputers. It was from 8088 that the concept of personal computers (PC) began to develop around the world. From the 8088 application to the IBM PC, personal computers have truly entered people's work and life, and it also marked the beginning of a new era.
In 1982, Intel developed the 80286 microprocessor on the basis of the 8086. The maximum frequency of the microprocessor is 20MHz. The internal and external data transmission are both 16 bits. It uses 24-bit internal memory for addressing. The addressing capacity is 16MB. 80286 can work in two modes, one is called real mode, and the other is called protection mode.
In the real mode, the total amount of memory that the microprocessor can access is limited to 1 megabyte; while in the protection mode, the 80286 can directly access 16 megabytes of memory. In addition, the 80286 works in the protection mode, which can protect the operating system, unlike real mode or 8086 unprotected microprocessors, which will shut down the system when encountering abnormal applications.
IBM's use of 80286 microprocessors in advanced technology microcomputers, namely AT machines, caused a great sensation. The 80286 has significant improvements over its predecessors in the following four aspects: it supports larger memory; it can simulate memory space; it can run multiple tasks at the same time; it improves the processing speed.
The first PC had a speed of 4MHz, and the first 80286-based AT machine ran at 6MHz to 8MHz. Some manufacturers also increased the speed by themselves so that the 80286 reached 20MHz, which means a significant improvement in performance.
The 80286 package is a square package called PGA. PGA is a cheap package derived from PLCC. It has an internal and external solid pin. In this package, the 80286 integrates approximately 130,000 transistors.
The bus of the IBM PC/AT microcomputer maintains the three-tier bus structure of XT, and adds high and low byte bus driver conversion logic and high byte bus. Like the XT machine, the CPU is soldered on the motherboard.
The fourth stage (1985-1992) is the 32-bit microprocessor. On October 17, 1985, Intel’s epoch-making product, the 80386DX, was officially released. It contained 275,000 transistors with a clock frequency of 12.5MHz, and then gradually increased to 20MHz, 25MHz, 33MHz, and finally a small amount of 40MHz products.
The internal and external data bus of 80386DX is 32-bit, and the address bus is also 32-bit, which can address 4GB of memory and can manage 64TB of virtual storage space. In addition to its operating mode, it has a real mode and a protected mode, it also adds a "virtual 86" working mode, which can provide multitasking capabilities by simulating multiple 8086 microprocessors at the same time.
The 80386DX has more instructions than the 80286. The 80386 with a frequency of 12.5MHz can execute 6 million instructions per second, which is 2.2 times faster than the 80286 with a frequency of 16MHz. The most classic product of 80386 is 80386DX-33MHz. Generally speaking, 80386 refers to it.
Due to the powerful computing capabilities of 32-bit microprocessors, PC applications have expanded to many fields, such as commercial office and computing, engineering design and computing, data centers, and personal entertainment. The 80386 made 32-bit CPUs a standard in the PC industry.
In 1989, Intel introduced the quasi-32-bit microprocessor chip 80386SX. This is a cheaper and popular CPU launched by Intel to expand its market share. Its internal data bus is 32 bits and the external data bus is 16 bits. It can accept the 16-bit input/output interface chip developed for the 80286. Reduce the cost of the whole machine. After the 80386SX was launched, it was widely welcomed by the market, because the performance of the 80386SX was much better than that of the 80286, and the price was only one-third of the 80386.
In 1989, the familiar 80486 chip was launched by Intel. The great thing about this chip, which has been developed over four years and invested 300 million US dollars, is that it broke the limit of 1 million transistors for the first time, integrated 1.2 million transistors, and used a 1 micron manufacturing process. The 80486's clock frequency has been gradually increased from 25MHz to 33MHz, 40MHz, and 50MHz.
The 80486 integrates the 80386, the math co-microprocessor 80387, and an 8KB cache in one chip. The digital operation speed of the 80487 integrated in the 80486 is twice that of the previous 80387, and the internal cache shortens the waiting time of the microprocessor and slow DRAM. In addition, RISC (reduced instruction set) technology is adopted for the first time in the 80x86 series, which can execute an instruction in one clock cycle. It also uses a burst bus mode, which greatly improves the data exchange speed with the memory. Because of these improvements, the performance of the 80486 is 4 times higher than that of the 80386 DX with the 80387 math co-processor.
The fifth stage (1993-2005) is the era of the pentium series of microprocessors, usually called the fifth generation. Typical products are Intel’s Pentium series chips and AMD’s K6 series microprocessor chips compatible with it. A superscalar instruction pipeline structure is adopted internally, with independent instruction and data caches. With the emergence of MMX (MultiMediaeXtended) microprocessors, the development of microcomputers has reached a higher level in terms of networking, multimedia and intelligence.
The early Pentium 75MHz～120MHz used 0.5 micron manufacturing process, and the later Pentium above 120MHz frequency changed to 0.35 micron process. The performance of the classic Pentium is fairly average, with good integer arithmetic and floating-point arithmetic. In order to improve the application capabilities of computers in multimedia and 3D graphics, many new instruction sets have emerged. The most famous three are Intel’s MMX, SSE and AMD’s 3D NOW!. MMX (MultiMedia Extensions, multimedia extension instruction set) is a multimedia instruction enhancement technology invented by Intel in 1996. It includes 57 multimedia instructions. These instructions can process multiple data at once. MMX technology can be obtained with the cooperation of software. Better performance.
The official name of Pentium MMX is "Pentium with MMX Technology", which was released at the end of 1996. Since the multi-power Pentium, Intel has begun to lock the multiplier of its CPU, but MMX's CPU has a particularly strong ability to overclock, and it can also overclock by increasing the core voltage, so overclocking was very fashionable at that time Action. The term overclocking also became popular from that time.
Pentium is another successful Intel product after Pentium, and its vitality is also quite tenacious. Multi-energy Pentium has made major improvements on the basis of the original Pentium, adding on-chip 16KB data cache and 16KB instruction cache, 4-way write cache, branch prediction unit and return stack technology. In particular, the newly added 57 MMX multimedia instructions make Pentium much faster than the Pentium CPU of the same frequency even when running non-MMX optimized programs.
The Pentium II processor launched in 1997 combines Intel MMX technology to process video, sound effects, and graphics data with extremely high efficiency. For the first time, it uses a Single Edge Contact (S.E.C) box package with a built-in high-speed cache memory. This chip allows computer users to capture, edit, and share digital photos with relatives and friends through the Internet, edit and add text, music, or make home movie transition effects, use video phones, and use standard phone lines to communicate with the Internet. The network transmits the video, the number of Intel Pentium II processor transistors is 7.5 million.
The Pentium III processor adds 70 new commands, and the Internet streaming SIMD extension set is called MMX. It can greatly improve the performance of advanced imaging, 3D, streaming music, video, voice recognition and other applications. It can greatly improve the performance of the Internet. Using experience allows users to browse realistic online museums and stores, and download high-quality videos. Intel has introduced 0.25 micron technology for the first time, and the number of Intel Pentium III transistors is approximately 9.5 million.
In the same year, Intel also released the Pentium III Xeon processor. As the successor of Pentium II Xeon, in addition to adopting a new design on the core architecture, it also inherits the 70 new instruction sets of the Pentium III processor to better execute multimedia and streaming media applications. In addition to facing the enterprise-level market, Pentium III Xeon strengthens the capabilities of e-commerce applications and high-end business computing. There are also many improvements in cache speed and system bus structure, which greatly improves performance and designs for better multi-processor coordination.
The Pentium 4 processor launched in 2000 has built-in 42 million transistors and uses 0.18 micron circuits. The initial version of Pentium 4 has a speed of 1.5GHz and the number of transistors is about 42 million. In August of the following year, Pentium 4 processed Management reaches the milestone of 2 GHz. In 2002, Intel introduced the new Intel Pentium 4 processor with innovative Hyper-Threading (HT) technology. Hyper-threading technology creates a new level of high-performance desktop computers that can quickly execute multiple computing applications at the same time, or bring higher performance to software that supports multiple threads. Hyper-threading technology increases computer performance by 25%. In addition to providing hyper-threading technology for desktop computer users, Intel has also reached another computer milestone. It is the launch of the Pentium 4 processor with an operating frequency of 3.06 GHz. It is the first commercial microcomputer that performs 3 billion computing cycles per second. The processor's excellent performance is attributed to the industry's most advanced 0.13 micron process technology at the time. The following year, the Intel Pentium 4 processor with built-in hyper-threading technology reached 3.2 GHz.
PentiumM: A new type of mobile CPU specially designed by the Israeli team. Pentium M is Intel’s x86-based microprocessor for notebook personal computers. It is also part of Centrino and was launched in March 2003. The following main frequencies have been announced: standard 1.6GHz, 1.5GHz, 1.4GHz, 1.3GHz, low voltage 1.1GHz, ultra-low voltage 900MHz. In order to get high performance at low main frequency, Banias has made optimizations to increase the number of instructions that can be executed per clock, and reduces the rate of error predictions through advanced branch prediction. In addition, the most prominent improvement is that the L2 cache is increased to 1MB (both P3-M and P4-M are only 512KB). It is estimated that most of the 77 million transistors in Banias are used here.
In addition, there are a series of designs related to reducing power consumption: Enhanced Speedstep technology is indispensable, with multiple supply voltages and calculation frequencies, so that performance can better meet application requirements.
Intelligent power distribution can centrally distribute the system power to where the processor needs it, and close idle applications; Mobile Voltage Positioning (MVPIV) technology can dynamically reduce the voltage according to the processor activity, thereby supporting lower heat dissipation design power and smaller Shape design; 400MHz system bus with optimized power; Micro-opsfusion micro-operation instruction fusion technology, when there are multiple instructions that can be executed at the same time, these instructions are combined into one instruction to improve performance and power efficiency. Dedicated stack manager, using dedicated hardware that records internal operation, the processor can execute programs without interruption.
The corresponding chipset of Banias is the 855 series. The 855 chipset consists of the north bridge chip 855 and the south bridge chip ICH4-M. The north bridge chip is divided into 855PM (code Odem) without built-in graphics card and 855GM (code Montara- GM), supports up to 2GB of DDR266/200 memory, AGP4X, USB2.0, two sets of ATA-100, AC97 audio and Modem. Among them, 855GM optimizes InternalClockGating for the 3D and display engine. It can power the 3D display engine when needed, thereby reducing the power of the chipset.
Intel’s dual-core processors launched in 2005 include Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition, while the 945/955/965/975 chipset was launched to support the newly launched dual-core processors. These two newly launched dual-core processors are produced using a 90nm process. The core processor uses the LGA 775 interface without pins, but the number of chip capacitors at the bottom of the processor has increased, and the arrangement is also different.
The processor with the core code name of the desktop platform Smithfield is officially named as the Pentium D processor. In addition to getting rid of Arabic numerals and using English letters to indicate the generational alternation of this dual-core processor, the letter D is also more reminiscent of Dual- The meaning of Core dual core.
Intel's dual-core architecture is more like a dual-CPU platform, and Pentium D processors continue to be produced using the Prescott architecture and 90nm production technology. The Pentium D core is actually composed of two independent 2 independent Prescott cores. Each core has an independent 1MB L2 cache and execution unit. The two cores together have a total of 2MB, but because both cores in the processor have Independent cache, so you must ensure that the information in each secondary cache is exactly the same, otherwise there will be operational errors.
In order to solve this problem, Intel handed over the coordination between the two cores to the external MCH (North Bridge) chip. Although the data transmission and storage between the caches is not huge, it needs to be coordinated through an external MCH chip. Processing will undoubtedly bring a certain delay to the overall processing speed, thereby affecting the overall performance of the processor.
Due to the Prescott kernel, Pentium D also supports EM64T technology and XD bit security technology. It is worth mentioning that the Pentium D processor will not support Hyper-Threading technology. The reason is obvious: it is not easy to properly distribute data flows and balance computing tasks among multiple physical processors and multiple logical processors. For example, if the application requires two computing threads, it is obvious that each thread corresponds to a physical core, but what if there are 3 computing threads? Therefore, in order to reduce the complexity of the dual-core Pentium D architecture, Intel decided to cancel the support for Hyper-Threading technology in the Pentium D for the mainstream market.
The same comes from Intel, and the difference in the names of the two dual-core processors, Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition, also indicates that the two processors are not the same in specifications. The biggest difference between them is the support for Hyper-Threading technology. Pentium D does not support Hyper-Threading technology, while Pentium Extreme Edition does not have this limitation. With Hyper-Threading Technology turned on, the dual-core Pentium Extreme Edition processor can simulate two other logical processors, which can be recognized by the system as a quad-core system.
Pentium EE series are marked with three digits in the form of Pentium EE8xx or 9xx, such as Pentium EE840, etc. The larger the number, the higher the specification or the more features it supports.
Pentium EE8x0: It means that this is a product with Smithfield core, 1MB L2 cache per core, 800MHz FSB. The only difference from the Pentium D8x0 series is the addition of hyper-threading technology support. In addition, other technical features and parameters are complete. the same.
Pentium EE9x5: It means that this is a product with Presler core, 2MB L2 cache per core, 1066MHz FSB. The difference from the Pentium D9x0 series is only to increase the support for hyper-threading technology and increase the front side bus to 1066MHz FSB, in addition to other technologies The characteristics and parameters are exactly the same.
Single-core Pentium 4, Pentium 4 EE, Celeron D, and dual-core Pentium D and Pentium EE CPUs are packaged in LGA775. Unlike the previous Socket 478 interface CPU, the bottom of the LGA 775 interface CPU does not have traditional pins. Instead, it has 775 contacts, that is, not a pin type but a contact type. It is connected to the 775 in the corresponding LGA 775 socket. The root contact pin contacts to transmit the signal. The LGA 775 interface can not only effectively increase the signal strength and frequency of the processor, but also increase the yield rate of the processor and reduce production costs.
The sixth stage (2005 to present) is the era of core series microprocessors, usually called the sixth generation. "Core" is a new type of micro-architecture leading energy saving. The starting point of the design is to provide outstanding performance and energy efficiency, and improve the performance per watt, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio. Early Core Duo was based on notebook processors. Core 2: The English name is Core 2 Duo, which is the name of a new generation of products based on the Core micro-architecture launched by Intel in 2006. Released on July 27, 2006. Core 2 is a cross-platform architecture system, including server version, desktop version, and mobile version. Among them, the development code name of the server version is Woodcrest, the development code name of the desktop version is Conroe, and the development code name of the mobile version is Merom.
The Core microarchitecture of the Core 2 processor is a new generation of Intel architecture improved by Intel’s Israeli design team based on the Yonah microarchitecture. The most significant change lies in the enhancement in each key part. In order to improve the efficiency of internal data exchange between the two cores, a shared secondary cache design is adopted, and the two cores share up to 4MB of secondary cache.
Following the LGA775 interface, Intel first launched the LGA1366 platform, positioning the high-end flagship series. The first processor with the LGA 1366 interface is code-named Bloomfield, using an improved Nehalem core, based on a 45-nanometer process and a native quad-core design, with a built-in 8-12MB L3 cache. The LGA1366 platform once again introduces Intel Hyper-Threading technology, while QPI bus technology replaces the front-side bus design that has been used in the Pentium 4 era. The most important thing is that the LGA1366 platform is a platform that supports three-channel memory design. It has a greater improvement in actual performance. This is also a major difference between the LGA1366 flagship platform and other platforms.
As a representative of high-end flagships, the early LGA1366 interface processors mainly include the 45nm Bloomfield core Core i7 quad-core processor. As Intel bought the 32nm process in 2010, the representative of the high-end flagship was replaced by the Core i7-980X processor. The new 32nm process solves the six-core technology and has the most powerful performance. For users who are preparing to build a high-end platform, LGA1366 still occupies the high-end market, and Core i7-980X and Core i7-950 are still good choices.
Intel Core i7 is a 45nm native quad-core processor with 8MB L3 cache and supports three-channel DDR3 memory. The processor uses the LGA 1366 pin design and supports the second-generation hyper-threading technology, which means that the processor can run with eight threads. According to tests circulating on the Internet, the same-frequency Core i7 has a much higher performance than the Core 2 Quad.
Based on the previous information, Intel will first release three Intel Core i7 processors with frequencies of 3.2GHz, 2.93GHz and 2.66GHz. The main frequency of 3.2GHz belongs to Intel Core i7 Extreme, and the processor is priced at $999. , Of course, this top processor is aimed at enthusiast users. The lower frequency 2.66GHz is priced at US$284, or about 1940 yuan, and is aimed at ordinary consumers. A new generation of Core i7 processors will be launched in the fourth quarter of 2013.
According to the situation shown by Intel at the Intel Technology Summit 2008 (IDF2008), the capability of core i7 is about three times that of core2 extreme qx9770 (3.2GHz). On IDF, intel staff used a core i7 3.2GHz processor to demonstrate CineBench R10 multi-threaded rendering, and the results were amazing. After the rendering started, the eight threads of the four cores started working at the same time, and the complete picture was presented on the screen after only 19 seconds, with a score of over 45800. In contrast, core2 extreme qx 9770 3.2GHz can only get about 12,000 points, and the overclocking to 4.0GHz barely exceeds 15,000 points, which is less than one-third of core i7. The super strength of core i7 can be seen from this.
Core i5 is a quad-core processor based on the Nehalem architecture, with integrated memory controller, three-level cache mode, L3 up to 8MB, and new processor computer configurations that support Turbo Boost and other technologies. The main difference between it and Core i7 (Bloomfield) is that the bus does not use QPI, it uses a mature DMI (Direct Media Interface), and only supports dual-channel DDR3 memory. Structurally, it uses the LGA1156 interface, and Core i7 uses the LGA1366. i5 has turbo frequency technology, which can be overclocked under certain circumstances.
Core i3 can be seen as a further streamlined version (or castrated version) of Core i5, and there will be a 32nm process version (development code named Clarkdale, based on Westmere architecture). The biggest feature of Core i3 is the integration of GPU (graphics processing unit), which means that Core i3 will be packaged with two cores, CPU+GPU. Due to the limited performance of the integrated GPU, users who want better 3D performance can add a graphics card. It is worth noting that even in Clarkdale, the manufacturing process of the core part of the display will still be 45nm. The biggest difference between i3 and i5 is that i3 does not have turbo technology.
In June 2010, Intel once again released a revolutionary processor-the second generation Core i3/i5/i7. The second-generation Core i3/i5/i7 belong to the second-generation Smart Core family, all based on the new Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, and compared with the first-generation products, it brings five important innovations: 1. The new 32nm Sandy Bridge micro Architecture, lower power consumption, stronger performance. 2. Built-in high-performance GPU (core graphics card), video encoding and graphics performance is stronger. 3. Turbo Boost Technology 2.0, smarter and more efficient. 4. The introduction of a new ring architecture brings higher bandwidth and lower latency. 5. Brand new AVX and AES instruction sets, strengthen floating point operations and encryption and decryption operations.
SNB (Sandy Bridge) is a new generation of processor microarchitecture released by Intel at the beginning of 2011. The greatest significance of this architecture is to redefine the concept of "integrated platform" and the "core graphics card" that seamlessly integrates with the processor. "End the era of "integrated graphics." This initiative has benefited from a new 32nm manufacturing process. Because the processor under the Sandy Bridge architecture uses a 32nm manufacturing process that is more advanced than the previous 45nm process, theoretically achieves a further reduction in CPU power consumption, and significant optimization of circuit size and performance, which will integrate the graphics core (HD Graphics) and CPU package on the same substrate creates favorable conditions. In addition, the second-generation Core Duo also added a new high-definition video processing unit. The speed of video conversion and decoding is directly related to the processor. Due to the addition of the high-definition video processing unit, the video processing time of the new generation of Core processors is at least 30% higher than that of the old processors. The new generation of Sandy Bridge processor adopts the new LGA1155 interface design, and cannot be compatible without the LGA1156 interface. Sandy Bridge is a new micro-architecture that will replace Nehalem, but it will still use a 32nm process. The more fascinating point is that this time Intel is no longer sticking the CPU core and GPU core together with "glue", but has truly integrated the two into one core.
On the afternoon of April 24, 2012, Beijing Planetarium, Intel officially released the ivy bridge (IVB) processor. The 22nm Ivy Bridge will double the number of execution units to a maximum of 24, which will naturally bring a further leap in performance. Ivy Bridge will add integrated graphics that support DX11. In addition, the newly added XHCI USB 3.0 controller shares four of the channels to provide up to four USB 3.0, thereby supporting native USB 3.0. The production of cpu using 3D transistor technology CPU power consumption will be reduced by half.
FPGA Spartan-3E Family 500K Gates 10476 Cells 657MHz 90nm Technology 1.2V 320-Pin FBGA
CPLD CoolRunner -II Family 750 Gates 32 Macro Cells 200MHz 0.18um, CMOS Technology 1.8V 44-Pin VQFP
CPLD CoolRunner -II Family 9K Gates 384 Macro Cells 125MHz 0.18um Technology 1.8V 256-Pin FTBGA
CPLD CoolRunner -II Family 9K Gates 384 Macro Cells 125MHz 0.18um Technology 1.8V 208-Pin PQFP