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An integrated circuit (integrated circuit) is a microelectronic device or component. A certain process is used to interconnect the transistors, resistors, capacitors, and inductors and wiring required in a circuit together on a small piece or pieces of semiconductor wafer or dielectric substrate, and then packaged in a package It has become a microstructure with the required circuit functions; all the components have been integrated into a structure, making electronic components a big step toward miniaturization, low power consumption, intelligence and high reliability. It is represented by the letter "IC" in the circuit. The inventors of integrated circuits are Jack Kirby (an integrated circuit based on germanium (Ge)) and Robert Noyce (an integrated circuit based on silicon (Si)). Most applications in the semiconductor industry today are integrated circuits based on silicon.

It is a new type of semiconductor device developed in the late 1950s and 1960s. It is through semiconductor manufacturing processes such as oxidation, lithography, diffusion, epitaxy, aluminum vaporization, etc., which integrates the semiconductor, resistor, capacitor and other components required to form a circuit with a certain function and the connecting wires between them in a small piece of silicon On-chip, and then solder the electronic devices encapsulated in a package. Its package shell has many forms such as round shell, flat or double in-line. Integrated circuit technology includes chip manufacturing technology and design technology, mainly reflected in processing equipment, processing technology, packaging and testing, mass production and design innovation capabilities.


Integrated circuit, Integrated Circuit in English, abbreviated as IC; as the name implies, it is to integrate a certain number of commonly used electronic components, such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, etc., and the wiring between these components through a semiconductor process with a specific function Circuit.

Why are integrated circuits produced? We know that there is a driving force behind any invention, and the driving force often comes from the problem. So what were the problems before the IC was born? Let’s take a look at the world’s first electronic computer born in the United States in 1942. It is a behemoth that covers an area of 150 square meters and weighs 30 tons. The circuit inside uses 17468 tubes, 7200 resistors, 10000 capacitors, 500,000 lines with a power consumption of 150 kilowatts [1]. Obviously, the large footprint and the inability to move are its most intuitive and prominent problems; how good it would be to integrate these electronic components and wiring on a small carrier! We believe that many people have thought about this issue and have put forward various ideas. A typical example is Damer, a scientist at the British Radar Institute. He proposed at a meeting in 1952 that discrete components in electronic circuits can be concentrated on a semiconductor chip, and a small chip is a complete circuit. As a result, the volume of electronic circuits can be greatly reduced, and the reliability is greatly improved. This was the idea of the initial integrated circuit. The invention of the transistor made this idea possible. The first transistor was manufactured at Bell Laboratories in the United States in 1947. Before that, the current amplification function could only rely on the large size and the consumption. Electron tube with large power and fragile structure. Transistors have the main functions of electron tubes, and overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings of electron tubes. Therefore, after the invention of the transistor, the idea of semiconductor-based integrated circuits soon appeared, and integrated circuits were quickly invented. Jack Kilby (Jack Kilby) and Robert Noyce (Robert Noyce) invented germanium integrated circuits and silicon integrated circuits from 1958 to 1959, respectively.

After talking about history, let's look at the status quo. Integrated circuits have played a very important role in all walks of life and are the cornerstone of the modern information society. The meaning of integrated circuits has far exceeded the scope of its definition at the time of its birth, but its core part has not changed, that is, "integration". The various disciplines derived from it are mostly around "integration" "What", "how to integrate", and "how to deal with the advantages and disadvantages of integration" are carried out. Silicon integrated circuits are the mainstream, that is, the various components required to achieve a certain function of the circuit are placed on a silicon chip, and the whole formed is called an integrated circuit. For "integration", imagine that the house we have lived in may be easier to understand: many people have lived in rural houses when they were young. At that time, the main body of the house may be three or two bungalows, which play the role of bedrooms, and the small courtyard at the door is arranged. A pair of tables and chairs will serve as a living room, and there is a small hut next to the smoke, which is the kitchen, and the toilet with unique functions needs some isolation. It may be more than ten meters behind the house. ...Later, in the city, or in the urbanization of the countryside, everyone moved into a building or suite. In a suite, there are a living room, bedroom, kitchen, bathroom, balcony, maybe only tens of square meters, but it has the original area. The various functions of rural houses of hundreds of square meters are integrated.

Of course, the integration of today's integrated circuits is far from comparable to that of a suite. Perhaps a modern building can be better analogized: there are shops, offices, canteens, hotel apartments on the ground, and several floors underground are parking lots. There is also a foundation under the parking lot-this is the layout of the integrated circuit. The analog and digital circuits are separated. The sensitive circuits that handle small signals are separated from the control logic that frequently flips. The power supply is placed in a corner. The layout of the rooms on each floor is different, and the corridors are also different. There are zigzag, I-shaped, and several-shaped-this is the design of integrated circuit devices. Folded shapes or "interdigital" structures can be used in low-noise circuits. Transistor to reduce junction area and gate resistance. Each floor is directly accessible by high-speed elevators. For efficiency and functional isolation, there may be multiple elevators, each elevator can reach different floors-this is the wiring of the integrated circuit, the power line and the ground line are separately routed, and the load is large The line is also wide; the clock and the signal are separated; the wiring between each layer is vertical to avoid interference; the high-speed bus between the CPU and the storage is equivalent to the elevator, and the through hole between each layer is equivalent to the elevator...


Integrated circuits or microcircuits (microcircuits), microchips (chips), and chips (chips) are a way of miniaturizing circuits (mainly including semiconductor devices and passive components, etc.) in electronics, and are usually manufactured in On the semiconductor wafer surface.

The aforementioned integrated circuits that manufacture circuits on the surface of semiconductor chips are also called thin-film integrated circuits. Another type of thick-film hybrid integrated circuit (hybrid integrated circuit) is a miniaturized circuit composed of independent semiconductor devices and passive components integrated into a substrate or circuit board.

This article is about monolithic integrated circuits, or thin film integrated circuits.

The integrated circuit has the advantages of small size, light weight, few lead wires and solder joints, long life, high reliability, good performance, etc. At the same time, the cost is low and it is convenient for large-scale production. It is not only widely used in industrial and civilian electronic equipment such as radio cassette recorders, televisions, computers, etc., but also widely used in military, communications, remote control, etc. The use of integrated circuits to assemble electronic equipment can increase the assembly density by dozens to thousands of times compared to transistors, and the stable working time of the equipment can also be greatly improved.


Functional structure

Integrated circuits, also known as ICs, can be divided into three categories: analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits, and digital/analog hybrid integrated circuits according to their functions and structures.

Analog integrated circuits, also known as linear circuits, are used to generate, amplify and process various analog signals (referring to signals whose amplitude changes with time. For example, audio signals of semiconductor radios, tape signals of recorders, etc.), their input signals and output signals are ratio. Digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various digital signals (referring to signals that are discretely valued in time and amplitude. For example, 3G mobile phones, digital cameras, computer CPUs, digital TV logic control and playback audio signals And video signals).


Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and film integrated circuits according to the manufacturing process.

Film integrated circuits are further classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.

Integration level

Integrated circuits can be divided into:

SSIC Small Scale Integrated Circuits

MSIC Medium Scale Integrated Circuits

LSIC Large Scale Integrated Circuits

VLSIC Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits

ULSIC Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits

GSIC giant scale integrated circuits are also called very large scale integrated circuits or super large scale integrated circuits (Giga Scale Integration).

Different conductivity types

Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to their conductivity type. They are all digital integrated circuits.

The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complicated and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits have TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and other types. The manufacturing process of the unipolar integrated circuit is simple, the power consumption is also low, and it is easy to make a large-scale integrated circuit, which represents that the integrated circuit has CMOS, NMOS, PMOS and other types.

By use

Integrated circuits can be divided into integrated circuits for televisions, integrated circuits for audio, integrated circuits for video players, integrated circuits for video recorders, integrated circuits for computers (microcomputers), integrated circuits for electronic pianos, integrated circuits for communication, and integrated circuits for cameras Circuits, remote control integrated circuits, language integrated circuits, integrated circuits for alarms and various special integrated circuits.

1. Integrated circuits for televisions include line and field scanning integrated circuits, intermediate amplifier integrated circuits, sound integrated circuits, color decoding integrated circuits, AV/TV conversion integrated circuits, switching power supply integrated circuits, remote control integrated circuits, and Liyin decoding integrated circuits , Picture-in-picture processing integrated circuits, microprocessor (CPU) integrated circuits, memory integrated circuits, etc.

2. The integrated circuit for audio includes AM/FM high-IF circuit, stereo decoding circuit, audio preamplifier circuit, audio operational amplifier integrated circuit, audio power amplifier integrated circuit, surround sound processing integrated circuit, level drive integrated circuit, electronic volume Control integrated circuits, delay reverberation integrated circuits, electronic switch integrated circuits, etc.

3. Integrated circuits for DVD players include system control integrated circuits, video encoding integrated circuits, MPEG decoding integrated circuits, audio signal processing integrated circuits, sound effect integrated circuits, RF signal processing integrated circuits, digital signal processing integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, Motor drive integrated circuits, etc.

4. Integrated circuits for video recorders include system control integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, drive integrated circuits, audio processing integrated circuits, and video processing integrated circuits.

5. Computer integrated circuit, including central control unit (CPU), internal memory, external memory, I/O control circuit, etc.

6. Communication IC

7. Professional control IC

By application area

Integrated circuits can be divided into standard general-purpose integrated circuits and application-specific integrated circuits according to application fields.

By shape

Integrated circuits can be divided into round shape (metal case transistor package type, generally suitable for high power), flat type (good stability, small size) and dual in-line type.


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